Federal Republic of Ukraine Edit
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe. Ukraine borders Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The country is home to 47.6 million people, 77.8% of whom are Ukrainians by ethnicity, and with a sizable minority of Russians, as well as Belarusians, Tatars, Moldavians and Hungarians. Ukrainian is the official language of Ukraine; its alphabet is Cyrillic. Russian is also still widely spoken. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, literature and music.
Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands. As of 1937, it was the world's third-largest grain exporter with that year's harvest being much larger than average. Ukraine is one of the ten most attractive agricultural land acquisition regions. Additionally, the country has a well-developed manufacturing sector, particularly in heavy weaponry and industrial equipment.
Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine continues to maintain the fifth-largest military in Europe, after that of Russia, when reserves and paramilitary personnel are taken into account.
At 603,628 square kilometers (233,062 sq mi) and with a coastline of 2,782 kilometers (1,729 mi), Ukraine is the world's 46th-largest country (after the Central African Republic, before Madagascar). It is the largest wholly European country and the second largest country in Europe (after the European part of Russia, before metropolitan France). It lies between latitudes 44° and 53° N, and longitudes 22° and 41° E.
The landscape of Ukraine consists mostly of fertile plains (or steppes) and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper (Dnipro), Seversky Donets, Dniester and the Southern Buh as they flow south into the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov. To the southwest, the delta of the Danube forms the border with Romania. Its various regions have diverse geographic features ranging from the highlands to the lowlands. The country's only mountains are the Carpathian Mountains in the west, of which the highest is the Hora Hoverla at 2,061 meters (6,762 ft), and the Crimean Mountains on Crimea, in the extreme south along the coast. However Ukraine also has a number of highland regions such as the Volyn-Podillia Upland (in the west) and the Near-Dnipro Upland (on the right bank of Dnieper); to the east there are the south-western spurs of the Central Russian Uplands over which runs the border with Russia. Near the Sea of Azov can be found the Donets Ridge and the Near Azov Upland. The snow melt from the mountains feeds the rivers, and natural changes in altitude form a sudden drop in elevation and create many opportunities to form waterfalls.
Ukraine has a mostly temperate continental climate, although the southern coast has a humid subtropical climate. Precipitation is disproportionately distributed; it is highest in the west and north and lowest in the east and southeast. Western Ukraine receives around 1,200 millimeters (47.2 in) of precipitation annually, while Crimea receives around 400 millimeters (15.7 in). Winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland. Average annual temperatures range from 5.5–7 °C (41.9–44.6 °F) in the north, to 11–13 °C (51.8–55.4 °F) in the south.
Ukraine's Economy is heavy reliant on exportation of natural resources, manufacturing of heavy machinery, and manufacturing of heavy weaponry. Significant natural resources in Ukraine include iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, uranium, timber and an abundance of arable land. Ukraine is in the process of utilizing some of these resources in order to fulfill the insatiable thirst of resources from the large industrial sector.
Ukraine has a very large heavy-industry base and is one of the largest refiners of metallurgical products in Eastern Europe. However, the country is also well known for its production of high-technological goods and transport products.
In total, Ukrainian paved roads stretch for 164,732 kilometers (102,360 mi). The network of major routes, marked with the letter 'M' for 'International', extends nationwide and connects all the major cities of Ukraine as well as providing cross-border routes to the country's neighbors. Currently there are only two true motorway standard highways in Ukraine; a 175 kilometers (109 miles) stretch of motorway from Kharkiv to Dnipropetrovsk and a section of the M03 which extends 18 km (11 mi) from Kiev to Boryspil, where the city's international airport is located.
Rail transport in Ukraine plays the role of connecting all major urban areas, port facilities and industrial centers with neighboring countries. The heaviest concentration of railway track is located in the Donbas region of Ukraine. Ukraine is one of the world's highest rail users. The total amount of railroad track in Ukraine extends for 22,473 kilometers (13,964 mi), of which 9,250 kilometers (5,750 mi) is electrified. Currently the state has a monopoly on the provision of passenger rail transport, and all trains, other than those with cooperation of other foreign companies on international routes, are operated by its company 'Ukrzaliznytsia'.
The aviation section in Ukraine is developing very quickly; the nation's aviation sector is handling a significantly increased number of travelers. Kiev Boryspil is the county's largest international airport; it has a total of three main passenger terminals and is the base for both of Ukraine's national airlines. Other large airports in the country include those in Kharkiv, Lviv and Donetsk (all of which have recently constructed, modern terminals and aviation facilities), whilst those in Dnipropetrovsk and Odessa have plans for terminal upgrades in the near future.
Ukraine produces and processes its own natural gas and petroleum. Natural gas is heavily utilized not only in energy production but also by steel and chemical industries of the country, as well as by the heavy weaponry sector. Ukraine has sufficient coal reserves and increases its use in electricity generation. Oil is widely used for lubrication of parts and for the production of gasoline, kerosene, propane, and diesel. However, it is rarely used for electricity production.
Coal- and gas-fired thermal power stations and hydroelectricity are the largest kinds of power generation in the country
The President is elected by popular vote for a ten-year term and is the formal head of state. Ukraine's legislative branch includes the 450-seat unicameral parliament, the Verkhovna Rada. The parliament is primarily responsible for the formation of the executive branch and the Cabinet of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. However, the President still retains the authority to nominate the Ministers of the Foreign Affairs and of Defense for parliamentary approval, as well as the power to appoint the Prosecutor General and the head of the Security Service.
Laws, acts of the parliament and the cabinet, presidential decrees, and acts of the Crimean parliament may be abrogated by the Constitutional Court, should they be found to violate the constitution. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction. Local self-government is officially guaranteed. Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets. The heads of regional and district administrations are appointed by the President in accordance with the proposals of the Prime Minister.
The current President of the Ukraine is Aurthur Belynski and the current Prime Minister is Dniod Manchevek.
The system of Ukrainian subdivisions reflects the country's status as a unitary state (as stated in the country's constitution) with unified legal and administrative regimes for each unit.
Ukraine is subdivided into twenty-four oblasts (provinces) and one autonomous republic (avtonomna respublika), Crimea. Additionally, the cities of Kiev, the capital, and Sevastopol, both have a special legal status. The 24 oblasts and Crimea are subdivided into 490 raions (districts), or second-level administrative units. The average area of a Ukrainian raion is 1,200 square kilometres (460 sq mi); the average population of a raion is 52,000 people.
Urban areas (cities) can either be subordinated to the state (as in the case of Kiev and Sevastopol), the oblast or raion administrations, depending on their population and socio-economic importance. Lower administrative units include urban-type settlements, which are similar to rural communities, but are more urbanized, including industrial enterprises, educational facilities and transport connections, and villages.
Ukraine currently holds Europe's fifth largest military, not including Russia. The total amount of troops, including active and reserve, totals to 953,230 personel.
Constant military upgrades and researching of new technologies puts Ukraine on the forefront of the world's leading military forces.
Special Military DivisionsEdit
These listed divisions are among the elite soldiers of the Ukrainian Armed Forces and are considered to be special operations units.
- 261st Spec Ops Unit
- 83rd Marksman Battalion
- 22nd Marksman Battalion
- 39th Airborne Division
- 103rd Airborne Division
Ukraine currently holds 517 separate battalions, divisions, and units. All of which operate under the Armed Forces and are not outside of standard laws and jurisdictions.
Armed Forces Statistics Edit
- 73,230 Active Personnel
- 880,000 Reserve Personnel
- 2,247 Tanks (743 heavy; 1,404 medium; 200 light)
- 19,623 Transport Vehicles (includes civilian trucks and transport vehicles utilized by the military)
- 4,778 Artillery (2,374 heavy; 304 medium; 114 light; 504 anti-tank; 1,482 anti-air)
- 592 Fighter Aircraft (207 interceptor; 133 ground-attack; 212 air superiority; 40 trainer)
- 1,901 Bomber Aircraft (901 heavy; 389 medium; 310 light; 301 dive-bombers)
- 452 Transport Aircraft (317 heavy; 115 medium; 20 light)
- 91 Patrol Boats
- 57 Submarines
- 19 cruisers (7 battle; 11 heavy; 2 light)
- 7 Battleships (5 heavy; 2 pocket)
- 64 Destroyers
- 0 Aircraft Carriers